Articles from: August 2015

PCB Fabrication– How should it be done?

Electronic products continue to evolve and be more technologically advanced in the 21st century. The miniaturization of almost all gadgets and electronics has resulted in manufacturing printed circuit boards (PCBs) that are smaller and more densely packed. However, even if these PCBs are smaller, they have increased electronic capabilities. There are four main processes in manufacturing a printed circuit board. These are design, fabrication, assembly and test. These processes are all interrelated to each other. This article shall focus on the PCB fabrication process.

PCB fabrication is part of the process in manufacturing a Printed Circuit Board. The operations that are part of a circuit fabricator’s realm are cleaning, shearing, hole-drilling, pattern-imaging, etching and plating. Plating includes two processes: electro less and electrolytic plating. It should be emphasized that the environment in PCB fabrication should be spotlessly clean in order to avoid defects. In addition, fabricating PCBs should be done in a standardized, efficient and reliable manner.

PCBThe first step that should be determined in fabrication is what happens to the PCB designer’s data when it reaches the fabricator? When a PCB fabricator gets a data set, the first thing that must be done is to load it into a system to recreate the same PCB model. Good designers must construct valid PCB data sets. Fabricators receive what is called a fabrication drawing or a schematic diagram, which is the dimensional configuration of the board, size and location of the holes, and material and process specifications. This is the main reference document for the design.

A fabrication set should also have general PCB specifications such as board outline and thickness, material, finishes, compliance, number of orders and even addresses and delivery time. Other important PCB specifications are test, inspection and qualification requirement and change/modification control information.

The fabricator has to remember that fabrication data is not a set of files that run independently. All these data are interrelated, and are ordered sets of layers that are laminated together. The fabricator should also make sure that there is a digital data file for every pattern in the PCB. This means that the fabricator should check digital data files for copper layers, solder masks, and other patterned layers.

The physical layout is derived from the schematic diagram, and it defines the final physical form of the circuit. When it is complete, it is reduced to final size and a positive (electrolytic) or negative (electro less) print is made, depending on the specifications of the client.

The next phase is the transfer of the artwork pattern to the actual copper surface. Next is the etching process, which some consider as the core of the PCB manufacturing process. It is usually done by immersion, bubble, splash or spray method. After that is board drilling, then coating. The base metal conductor used in PCB fabrication is copper. Copper is used because it is an excellent conductor of heat and electricity. Several other coatings are applied to protect the product.

When all these are done, the PCB board will be subject to testing. There are generally two types of tests that are used: bare board test and loaded board tests. On each stage of the manufacturing process, it is of utmost importance to carry out inspections. It should also be noted that many chemicals are used in the PCB fabrication process, so protective measures should be undertaken. All protective devices such as goggles, masks and gloves should be on hand and wearing these should be strictly enforced and monitored. Additionally, all toxic chemicals should be sealed and stored properly. They should also be properly labeled. There should be no smoking and eating inside the facility.

Author Bio:
High quality PCB fabrication and assembly. We ship PCB Prototypes the Same Day! INSTANT on-line quote and ordering. From prototype to production of single, double, and multilayer PC Boards.

Types of Online Chat Service and the Manner of Preparing Them

Conversing with your clients is easy to handle, but knowing what the client is hoping to accomplish by talking to a live agent is not easy. The information you provide during the conversation has an effect on the client. This is particularly true for internet based live chat.

There are three common types of live chat for websites that can be planned for and manned. This makes it a lot simpler to build your live chat team to meet your specific objectives and needs.

While the personnel requirements for every type of chat may differ, a well-developed live chat group still keeps the standard requirement for qualities such as politeness and the capability to stand for the brand properly and its voice. Use this easy guide to the three primary types of live chat communications to plan your team and live chat technique.


chatThe most basic type of live chat for websites is as simple as providing answers to the questions and information for your site visitors. This kind of live chat is designed to provide factual, objective information that your site visitors can use in making a decision or taking an action. This kind of live chat, also has the most basic of personnel needs. Basically, the chat personnel have the standard responses and resources to handle the most common inquiries. Complicated or uncommon questions can be forwarded to a more expert agent as needed. This kind of chat is likewise well-fitted for administrative assistants and other personnel whose main responsibility leaves them the liberty to manage basic live chats.

An informational live chat representatives should…

  • 1.have access to product specifications
  • provided a list of frequently asked questions and answers
  • knowledgeable in website functionality and company policy


There comes a time where live chats are transformed into requesting recommendations instead of gathering information. That is when the conversation becomes a sales live chat. If this usually happens on your site, you need to have the kind of live chat for websites that is handled by an agent that are focused and trained on sales chats.

A sales chat representative will have all the details that an informational chat representative does, but will also have a distinct talent or the training to know what the prospect requires and help them choose the right product.

The majority of the companies that need sales live chat representatives will have their regular sales team handle live chats if in case they are unoccupied. Basically, sales chat representatives will have prepared access or knowledge of product comparison information. This type of data is important in helping clients choose the best product, and make sure that they are satisfied afterwards.

Sales live chat representatives should have knowledge of present and future promotions so that they can best help guide a client to have a great buying experience. Providing assistance to your customer find an amazing product with promotional price a great way to have a happy and contented clients and boost sales conversion ratios.

Customer Service

Live chat for websites that focuses on past and current customers is the other type of live chat. This kind of live chat emphasize on providing help to those customers who have a problem during the process of purchasing an item. Most of the time this kind of conversation is quite difficult and usually heated, and requires a live chat representative that is an expert on a specific topic.

A customer service live chat representative will basically have access to the most complicated information – everything a sales and informational live chat representative has, plus more information like customer and order records. The customer service live chat representatives should be allowed to give refunds and authorize returns.

August 2015
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